Mandaeans
ࡌࡀࡍࡃࡀࡉࡉࡀ
ٱلصَّابِئَة ٱلْمَنْدَائِيُّون
Mandaeans in prayer
Total population
c. 60,000–100,000[1][2][3]
Regions with significant populations
 Sweden10,000–20,000[4][5]
 Australia8,000–10,000[6][7][8]
 Iran5,000–14,000[9][10][11][12]
 United States5,000–7,000[13][14][15][16][12]
 Netherlands4,000[3]
 Iraq3,000[note 1]–6,000[17][12]
 United Kingdom2,500[3]
 Germany2,200–3,000[18][5]
 Jordan1,400–2,500[19][20]
 Syria1,000 (2015)[21][12]
 Canada1,000[22]
 New Zealand1,000[5]
 Denmark650–1,200[23][12]
 Finland100 families[24]
 France500[25]
 Turkey200–300[26]
Religions
Mandaeism
Scriptures
Ginza Rabba, Qolasta, Book of John, Haran Gawaita, etc. (see more)
Languages
  • Mandaic as liturgical language
  • Neo-Mandaic
  • Mesopotamian Arabic (in Iraq, Jordan, Syria and diaspora)
  • Persian (in Iran and diaspora)
  • Swedish (in Sweden)
  • English in (United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand)
  • Dutch (in Netherlands)
  • German (in Germany)
  • Danish (in Denmark)
  • Finnish (in Finland)
  • French (in France)

Mandaeans (Classical Mandaic: ࡌࡀࡍࡃࡀࡉࡉࡀ mandaiia) (Gnostics, Knowers, Enlightened Ones) (Arabic: ٱلْمَنْدَائِيُّون al-Mandāʾiyūn), also known as Sabians (Arabic: ٱلصَّابِئَة aṣ-Ṣābiʾah) or Sabian-Mandaeans (Arabic: ٱلصَّابِئَة ٱلْمَنْدَائِيُّون aṣ-Ṣābiʾah al-Mandāʾiyūn), Nasoraeans (Classical Mandaic: ࡍࡀࡑࡅࡓࡀࡉࡉࡀ Naṣuraiia) (Arabic: الناصورائيون al-Nāṣurā'iyūn) and Johannites (Arabic: اليحياويون al-Yaḥyāwiyūn), are an ancient ethnoreligious group, native to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia, who are followers of Mandaeism. They were possibly the earliest to practice baptism and may have originated Gnosticism.[27][28]: 109  Today, they are the last surviving Gnostics from antiquity.[27] The Mandaeans were originally native speakers of Mandaic, an Eastern Aramaic language, before many switched to colloquial Iraqi Arabic and Modern Persian, although being neither Arab nor Persian.

After the Iraq war in 2003, the Mandaean community of Iraq, which used to number 60,000–70,000 persons, collapsed; most of the community relocated to nearby Iran, Syria and Jordan, or formed diaspora communities beyond the Middle East.[29] The other community of Iranian Mandaeans has also been dwindling as a result of religious discrimination over those two decades.[11][30] By 2007, the population of Mandaeans in Iraq had fallen to approximately 5,000.[31]

There are estimated to be 60,000–100,000 Mandaeans worldwide.[15] About 10,000 Mandaeans live in Australia and there are between 10,000–20,000 in Sweden, making them the countries with the most Mandaeans.[5][7][20]

Etymology

The name "Mandaean" comes from the Mandaic word manda, meaning "knowledge".[32]

In Muslim countries, Mandaeans are called Sabians (Arabic: الصابئون‎ al-Ṣābiʼūn).[33]: vii, 256  The Arabic word Ṣābiʼūn is derived from the Aramaic term Ṣabi, which means 'to baptize'.[34][35]: 5 [36][37][38]: 35 

Mandaeans are also known as Johannites (Arabic: اليحياويون al-Yaḥyāwiyūn) since they are followers of Yahya ibn Zakariya (John the Baptizer) who is considered their greatest prophet.[39]

History

The Genesis Apocryphon, part of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Origin

There are several indications of the ultimate origin of the Mandaeans. Early religious concepts and terminologies recur in the Dead Sea Scrolls, and Yardena (Jordan) has been the name of every baptismal water in Mandaeism.[40] One of the names for the Mandaean God Hayyi Rabbi, Mara d-Rabuta (Lord of Greatness) is found in the Genesis Apocryphon (1Q20) II, 4.[41]: 552–553  They formally refer to themselves as Naṣuraiia (Classical Mandaic: ࡍࡀࡑࡅࡓࡀࡉࡉࡀ, lit.'Nasoraeans') meaning guardians or possessors of secret rites and knowledge.[42][43] Another early self-appellation is bhiri zidqa meaning 'elect of righteousness' or 'the chosen righteous', a term found in the Book of Enoch and Genesis Apocryphon.[41]: 552–553 [42][44]: 18 [45] As Nasoraeans, Mandaeans believe that they constitute the true congregation of bnai nhura meaning 'Sons of Light', a term used by the Essenes.[38]: 50 [46] The beit manda (beth manda) is described as biniana rab ḏ-srara ("the Great building of Truth") and bit tuslima ("house of Perfection") in Mandaean texts such as the Qolasta, Ginza Rabba, and the Book of John. The only known literary parallels are in Essene texts from Qumran such as the Community Rule, which has similar phrases such as the "house of Perfection and Truth in Israel" (Community Rule 1QS VIII 9) and "house of Truth in Israel."[47]

The Damascus Document, part of the Dead Sea Scrolls

The Mandaic language is a dialect of southeastern Aramaic with Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, Samaritan Aramaic, Hebrew, Greek, Latin,[48][49] as well as Akkadian[50] and Parthian[51] influences and is closely related to Syriac and especially Jewish Babylonian Aramaic.[52] Mandaic is mainly preserved as a liturgical language.

A priest holds the title of Rabbi[53] and a place of worship is called a Mashkhanna.[54] According to Mandaean sources such as the Haran Gawaita, the Nasuraiia inhabited the areas around Jerusalem and the River Jordan in the 1st century CE.[28][43] There is archaeological evidence that attests to the Mandaean presence in pre-Islamic Iraq.[55]: 4 [56] Scholars, including Kurt Rudolph, connect the early Mandaeans with the Jewish sect of the Nasoraeans, however Mandaeans believe their religion predates Judaism and that the Israelites descend from Mandaeans.[57][56][28][58][59] Gilles Quispel finds parallels between Mandaean names for divinities and names found in some Hellenistic magical papyri pointing to Mandaean ancient western roots.[44]: 21 [60] James F. McGrath believes the following Mandaean names to be of ancient Israelite origin: Yushamin, Yurba, Yukabar, Yusmir, Yuzataq, Ruha d-Qudsha, Taureil, Ptahil, Anath-Hayyi.[61] Mandaean scripture affirms that the Mandaeans descend directly from Shem, Noah's son, in Mesopotamia[57]: 186  and also from John the Baptizer's original Nasoraean Mandaean disciples in Jerusalem.[43]: vi, ix  Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, was almost certainly influenced by the Mandaeans and the pre-Manichaean presence of the Mandaean religion is more than likely.[62]

Jorunn J. Buckley, who is one of the world's leading specialists on Mandaeism, maintains that the Mandaeans originated about two thousand years ago in Palestine/Judea and moved east due to persecution.[63] Buckley argues for Mandaeism's Israelite or Judean origins, placing Mandaeism (Nasoraeanism) alongside Judaism and Samaritanism as a religion with Israelite roots surviving to this day.[28]: 97 

Brikha Nasoraia, a Mandaean priest and scholar, accepts a two-origin theory in which he considers the contemporary Mandaeans to have descended from both a line of Mandaeans who had originated from the Jordan Valley of Palestine/Judea, as well as another group of Mandaeans (or Gnostics) who were indigenous to southern Mesopotamia. Thus, the historical merging of the two groups gave rise to the Mandaeans of today.[64]: 55  On the other hand, Gelbert argues that Mandaeans had formed a vibrant community in Edessa during the Late Antique period.[65]

River Jordan
Tarmida Sahi states that Mandaeism began in Mesopotamia with Adam but Mandaeans and converts to Mandaeism existed in Palestine/Jordan Valley during the time of John the Baptizer. He adds that these Mandaeans later migrated to Mesopotamia and that the Ginza Rabba, Niana, The Thousand and Twelve Questions, The Baptism of Hibil Ziwa, Book of Souls (Sidra ḏ-Nišmata) in the Qolasta, and Book of John all provide evidence for this.[66]

Gerard Russell quotes Rish amma Sattar Jabbar Hilo, "Ours is the oldest religion in the world. It dates back to Adam." Russell adds, "He [Rishama Sattar Jabbar Hilo] traced its history back to Babylon, though he said it might have some connection to the Jews of Jerusalem."[67] The Mandaean Synod of Australia lead by Rish amma Salah Choheili states:

Mandaeans are followers of John the Baptist. Their ancestors fled from the Jordan Valley about 2000 years ago and ultimately settled along the lower reaches of the Tigris, Euphrates and Karun Rivers in what is now Iraq and Iran. Baptism is the principal ceremony of the Mandaean religion and may only take place in a freshwater river.[68]

Early Persian periods

Kartir's inscription at Ka'ba-ye Zartosht claimed that he "struck down" the non-Zoroastrian minorities, such as the Mandaeans

A number of ancient Aramaic inscriptions dating back to the 2nd century CE were uncovered in Elymais. Although the letters appear quite similar to the Mandaean ones, it is impossible to know whether the inhabitants of Elymais were Mandaeans.[69]: 4  Rudolf Macúch believes Mandaean letters predate Elymaic ones.[69]: 4  Under Parthian and early Sasanian rule, foreign religions were tolerated and Mandaeans appear to have enjoyed royal protection.[69]: 4  The situation changed by the ascension of Bahram I in 273, who under the influence of the zealous Zoroastrian high priest Kartir persecuted all non-Zoroastrian religions. It is thought that this persecution encouraged the consolidation of Mandaean religious literature.[69]: 4  The persecutions instigated by Kartir seems to temporarily erase Mandaeans from recorded history. Their presence, however can still be found in Mandaean magical bowls and lead strips which were produced from the 2nd or 3rd to the 7th centuries.[69]: 4 [70]

Islamic Caliphates

Pages from Thābit ibn Qurra's Arabic translation of Apollonius' Conics

The Mandaeans re-emerged at the beginning of the Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia, when their leader, Anush bar Danqa, appeared before Muslim authorities in c. 640 CE (Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas)[5]: 164 showing them a copy of the Ginza Rabba, the Mandaean holy book, and proclaiming the chief Mandaean prophet to be John the Baptizer, who is also mentioned in the Quran by the name Yahya ibn Zakariya. Consequently, the Muslim caliphates provided them acknowledgement as the Quranic Sabians, who are People of the Book, people who followed a legal minority religion under Islamic rule.[71]: IX [69]: 5  Mandaeans appeared to have flourished during the early Islamic period, as attested by the voluminous expansion of Mandaic literature and canons. Tib near Wasit is particularly noted as an important scribal center.[69]: 5  Yaqut al-Hamawi describes Tib as a town inhabited by Nabatean (i.e. Aramaic speaking) Sabians who consider themselves to be descendants of Seth.[69]: 5 

The status of the Mandaeans became an issue for the Abbasid caliph al-Qahir Billah even though they had received recognition as People of the Book. To avoid further investigation by the authorities, the Mandaeans paid a bribe of 50,000 dinars and were left alone. It appeared that the Mandaeans were even exempt from paying the Jizya, otherwise imposed upon non-Muslims.[69]: 5 

The Sabian-Mandaeans played a vital role in Baghdad and in the rest of the Arab world during the Abbasid caliphate; serving as great scholars and a source of science as well as shaping intellectual life and were likely part of the Sabians in Harran. The most prominent of the Sabian-Mandaeans was Thābit ibn Qurra (Thebit), but there were others as well such as Abu Is'haq Al-Sabi'.[38]: 39 [71]: 111  Drower names other famous Sabian-Mandaean scholars and physicians such as Abu'l-Fath Al-Mandāi (i.e. 'the Mandaean'), Ibrahim ibn Zahrūn Al-Harrani and Hilal ibn Ibrahim ibn Zahrūn Al-Sābi Al-Harrani (Zahrūn is a favoured Mandaean name).[71]: 112  Maʿrūf al-Karkhi and Abu al-Fatḥ al-Wāṣiṭi are believed to have Sabian-Mandaean origins.[72]: 401  Jabir ibn Hayyan and Al-Battani are also mentioned to be originally Sabians from Harran and may have been Sabian-Mandaeans.[73]: 95 [74]: 233 [75][76]: 317 [77]

Late Persian and Ottoman periods

Early contact with Europeans came about in the mid-16th century, when Portuguese missionaries encountered Mandaeans in Southern Iraq and controversially designated them "Christians of St. John". In the next centuries Europeans became more acquainted with the Mandaeans and their religion.[69]: 5 

The Mandaeans suffered persecution under the Qajar rule in the 1780s. The dwindling community was threatened with complete annihilation, when a cholera epidemic broke out in Shushtar and half of its inhabitants died. The entire Mandaean priesthood perished and Mandaeism was restored due to the efforts of few learned men such as Yahya Bihram.[69]: 6  Another danger threatened the community in 1870, when the local governor of Shushtar massacred the Mandaeans against the will of the Shah.[69]: 6 

Modern Iraq and Iran

Mandaean silversmith at work in Baghdad, Iraq, 1932

Following the First World War, the Mandaeans were still largely living in rural areas in the lower parts of British protected Iraq and Iran. Owing to the rise of Arab nationalism, Iraqi Mandaeans were Arabised at an accelerated rate, especially during the 1950s and '60s. The Mandaeans were also forced to abandon their stances on the cutting of hair and forced military service, which are strictly prohibited in Mandaeaism.[78]

The 2003 Iraq War brought more troubles to the Mandaeans, as the security situation deteriorated. Many members of the Mandaean community, who were known as goldsmiths, were targeted by criminal gangs for ransoms. The rise of Islamic extremism forced thousands to flee the country, after they were given the choice of conversion or death.[79] It is estimated that around 90% of Iraqi Mandaeans were either killed or have fled due to the war.[79]

The Mandaeans of Iran lived chiefly in Ahvaz, Khuzestan, but have moved as a result of the Iran–Iraq War to other cities such as Tehran, Karaj and Shiraz. The Mandaeans, who were traditionally considered as People of the Book (members of a protected religion under Islamic rule), lost this status after 1979. However, despite this, Iranian Mandaeans still maintain successful businesses and factories in areas such as Ahwaz. In April 1996, the cause of the Mandaeans' religious status in the Islamic Republic was raised. The parliament came to the conclusion that Sabians were included in the protected status of People of the Book alongside Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians and specified that, from a legal viewpoint, there is no prohibition against Muslims associating with Mandaeans, who are identified as being the Sabians mentioned explicitly in the Quran. That same year, Ayatollah Sajjadi of Al-Zahra University in Qom posed three questions regarding the Mandaeans' beliefs and seemed satisfied with the answers. These rulings, however, did not lead to Mandaeans regaining their more officially recognized status as People of the Book.[80] In 2009, Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei issued a fatwā recognizing the Mandaeans as the Sabians (Sabeans) of the Qur'an and People of the Book (ahl-il-kitāb).[81][note 2] However, the Iranian constitution has not been amended to reflect this.

Population

Mandaeans celebrating Parwanaya and bearing witness to the Yardena at the Tigris River, Amarah, Iraq - March 17, 2019

Iraqi Mandaeans

Further information (in Arabic): Mandaeans in Iraq
Prior to the Iraq War, the Iraqi Mandaean community was centered in southern Iraq in cities such as Nasiriyah, Amarah, Qal'at Saleh,[85] Wasit,[64]: 92  and Basra, as well as in Baghdad (particularly the district of Dora[86]). Historically, Mandaean quarters had also existed in southern Iraqi towns such as Qurna and Suq al-Shuyukh.[87]
Baptism (masbuta) during Parwanaya in the Tigris River, Amarah, Iraq - March 17, 2019
Many also live across the border in Southwestern Iran in the cities of Ahvaz and Khorramshahr.[88] Mandaean emigration from Iraq began during the 1980's, but accelerated greatly after the 2003 war.[89] Since 2003, Mandaeans, like other Iraqi ethno-religious minorities (such as Assyrians, Armenians, Yazidi, Roma and Shabaks), have been subjected to violence, including murders, kidnappings, rapes, evictions, and forced conversions.[89][90] Mandaeans, like many other Iraqis, have also been targeted for kidnapping since many worked as goldsmiths.[89] Mandaeism is pacifistic and forbids its adherents from carrying weapons.[89][91]: 91  During the 20th century in Iraq, most Mandaeans lived in large towns and cities, although a minority also lived in rural villages in the marshlands of southern Iraq.[64]

Many Iraqi Mandaeans have fled the country in the face of this violence, and the Mandaean community in Iraq faces extinction even though Mandaeans are recognized as Sabians (Sabeans) in the Iraqi constitution.[82][92][93] Out of the over 60,000 Mandaeans in Iraq in the early 1990s, fewer than 5,000 to 10,000 remain there as of 2007. In early 2007, more than 80% of Iraqi Mandaeans were refugees in Syria and Jordan as a result of the Iraq War.[31] In 2019, an Al-Monitor study estimated the Iraqi Mandaean population to be 3,000, 400 of which lived in the Erbil Governorate, which is 5% or less than the pre-Iraq war Mandaean population.[17]

Mandaeans in the past were renowned silver and gold smiths, blacksmiths and boatbuilders, even before the Abbasid Caliphate when they gained fame as intellectuals in the cultural and scientific fields. In modern Iraq, Mandaeans have gained prominence as academics, writers, artists, poets, physicians, engineers and jewelers.[5]: 161 

Notable Iraqi Mandaeans

Ganzibra Dakheel Edan (1881–1964), High Priest of the Mandaeans
  • Abdul Jabbar Abdullah (1911–1969), wave theory physicist, dynamical meteorologist, and President Emeritus of the University of Baghdad; MIT graduate (1946); chair of physics at Baghdad University; co-founded the Iraqi Physics and Mathematics Society.[94][95]
  • Abdul Razzak Abdul Wahid (1930–2015), poet.
  • Nouman Abid Al-Jader (1916–1991), University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) graduate (1950); acting dean of the College of Science – University of Baghdad; chair of mathematics at the University of Baghdad; co-founded the Iraqi Physics and Mathematics Society.[96][97]
  • Abdul Athem Alsabti (1945–), supernova astrophysicist who introduced astronomy teaching into Iraq in 1970; University of Manchester graduate (1970); minor planet 10478 Alsabti named after him; president of the British Mandaean Council; founded the Iraqi Astronomical Society and Carl Zeiss Planetarium, Baghdad; project leader for the Iraqi National Astronomical Observatory.[98][99][100][101]
  • Siham Alsabti (1942–), actress.
  • Lamia Abbas Amara (1929–2021), poet and pioneer of modern Arabic poetry.
  • Zahroun Amara, world renowned niello silversmith. People that are known to have owned his silver nielloware include Stanley Maude, Winston Churchill, the Bahraini royal family, Egyptian King Farouk, the Iraqi royal family (including kings Faisal I and Ghazi), and the British royal family including the Prince of Wales who became Edward VIII.[102][103][104][105][106]
  • Ganzibra Yahya Bihram, known for reviving the Mandaean priesthood after a cholera epidemic had killed all living Mandaean priests in 1831.
  • Ganzibra Ṣaḥan Ṣaqr Bahram, renowned patriarch of the Mandaeans from 1870 to 1893 in Iraq. He was accused of aiding Arab tribes against Ottoman rule in Iraq and died in prison in 1896.[72][107][108]
  • Ganzibra Dakheel Edan (1881–1964), prominent patriarch and international head of the Mandaeans from 1917, until his death in 1964.[109]
  • Rish amma Sattar Jabbar Hilo, current patriarch and head of the Mandaeans in Iraq.[110][111]
  • Najiya Murrani (1919–2011), author, poet.[112]
  • Aziz Sbahi, senior member of the Iraqi Communist Party; writer.[113]
  • Zaidoon Treeko (1961–), Oud player, composer, and poet.
  • Yahya Al Sheikh Khoder, artist, designer, illustrator, art professor[5]: 161 [114]
  • Tahseen Issa Al-Saleem, oncologic pathologist, President of the Board of Pathology in Iraq, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Cancer Prevention & Current Research, Professor Emeritus at Department of Pathology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University[5]: 161 [115]: 86 [116][117][118]
  • Makki Al-Badri (1926-2014), actor

Iranian Mandaeans

Further information (in Persian): Mandaeans in Iran"
Mīnākārī on gold, an ancient art of Mandaeans, Ahvaz, Iran

The number of Iranian Mandaeans is a matter of dispute. In 2009, there were an estimated 5,000 to 10,000 Mandaeans in Iran, according to the Associated Press.[11] Alarabiya has put the number of Iranian Mandaeans as high as 60,000 in 2011.[119]

Until 1979, Mandaeans were mainly concentrated in the Khuzestan Province, where the community used to coexist with the local Arab population. Other than the main cities of Ahvaz and Khorramshahr, Mandaean communities also existed in towns such as Chogha Zanbil in Shush County, Shushtar, and Abadan,[69] as well as Mahshahr, Shadegan, Behbahan, and Susangerd (Khafajiyeh). Mandaean communities had also formerly existed in Dezful, Hamidiyeh, Hoveyzeh, Karun, and Abadan.[64]: 48 
Mandaeans undergoing baptism (Masbuta) in the Karun River, Ahvaz, Iran
They were mainly employed as goldsmiths, passing their skills from generation to generation.[119] After 1979, its members faced increased religious discrimination, and many emigrated to Europe and the Americas.

In Iran, the Gozinesh Law (passed in 1985) has the effect of prohibiting Mandaeans from fully participating in civil life. This law and other gozinesh provisions make access to employment, education, and a range of other areas conditional upon a rigorous ideological screening, the principal prerequisite for which is devotion to the tenets of Islam.[120] These laws are applied against religious and ethnic groups that are not officially recognized in the Iranian constitution, such as the Mandaeans.[121]

In 2002, the US State Department granted Iranian Mandaeans protective refugee status. Since then, roughly 1,000 have emigrated to the US,[11] now residing in cities such as San Antonio, Texas.[122][123] On the other hand, the Mandaean community in Iran has increased over the last decade because of the exodus from Iraq of the main Mandaean community, which used to be 50,000–70,000 strong.[124]

According to the 2021 Report on International Religious Freedom in Iran by the U.S. State Department, Iran currently regards Sabian-Mandaeans as Christian and therefore recognized as an official religious minority. However, Mandaeans do not consider themselves Christians.[10]

Notable Iranian Mandaeans

Other Middle Eastern Mandaeans

Following the Iraq War, the Mandaean community dispersed mostly throughout Jordan, Syria,[129] and Iran. Mandaeans in Jordan number about 2,500 (2018)[20][130] and in Syria there are about 1,000 remaining (2015).[130][12] Mandaeans are also found in the UAE[115]: 88  and Turkey.[26]

Diaspora

Mandaean community in Finland, May 2018

There are Mandaean diaspora populations in Sweden (c. 10,000-20,000),[5][4] Australia (c. 10,000),[7][131] the US (c. 4,000-7,000),[12][15] the UK (c. 2,500),[3] New Zealand and Canada.[132][92][133][134][89][135] There are also Mandaeans living in Germany, the Netherlands (in Nijmegen, The Hague, etc.), Denmark,[23] Finland,[136] France,[25] and smaller communities in Norway, Italy, Austria, Belgium, Poland and Romania.[115]: 88 [12][137]

Australia

The Sydney metropolitan area in Australia has one of the largest Mandaean diaspora communities in the world.[85] The community is centered in Greater Western Sydney suburbs such as Penrith[138] and Liverpool.[139] In Liverpool, the main mandi (Beth Manda) is Ganzibra Dakhil Mandi.[140] The Sabian Mandaean Association of Australia has purchased land by the banks of the Nepean River at Wallacia, New South Wales in order to build a new mandi.[141]

Sweden

Sweden became a popular destination because a Mandaean community existed there before the war and the Swedish government has a liberal asylum policy toward Iraqis. There are between 10,000-20,000 Mandaeans in Sweden (2019).[5][133][89] The scattered nature of the Mandaean diaspora has raised fears among Mandaeans for the religion's survival. Mandaeism does not allow conversion, and the religious status of Mandaeans who marry outside the faith and their children is disputed.[11][90]

On September 15, 2018, the Beth Manda Yardna was consecrated in Dalby, Scania, Sweden.[142][143]

United States

In the United States, Mandaean communities are centered in San Antonio (c. 2,500),[16] New York City, San Diego,[69] Winnetka, California, Austin, Texas,[144] Worcester, Massachusetts (c. 2,500),[13][14] Warren, Michigan,[145] Chicago,[146] and other major metropolitan areas. There is a mandi in Detroit.[147]

The status of the Mandaeans has prompted a number of American intellectuals and civil rights activists to call upon the US government to extend refugee status to the community. In 2007, The New York Times ran an op-ed piece in which Swarthmore professor Nathaniel Deutsch called for the Bush administration to take immediate action to preserve the community.[31] Iraqi Mandaeans were given refugee status by the US State Department in 2007. Since then, more than 2500 have entered the US, many settling in Worcester, Massachusetts.[11][1] The community in Worcester is believed to be the largest in the United States and the second largest community outside the Middle East.[14] About 2,600 Mandaeans from Iran have been settled in Texas since the Iraq War.[148]

Religion

Mandaean Drabsha, symbol of the Mandaean faith

Mandaeans are a closed ethno-religious community, practicing Mandaeism, which is a monotheistic, Gnostic, and ethnic religion[69]: 4 [149][150] (Aramaic manda means "knowledge," and is conceptually related to the Greek term gnosis.)[150] Its adherents revere Adam, Abel, Seth, Enosh, Enoch, Noah, Shem, Aram, and especially John the Baptizer.[150][32][151] Mandaeans consider Adam, Seth, Enoch, Shem and John the Baptizer to be prophets with Adam the founder or first teacher of the religion and John being the greatest and final prophet.[38]: 45 [152]: 207 [153]

The Mandaeans group existence into two main categories: light and darkness.[150] They have a dualistic view of life, that encompasses both good and evil; all good is thought to have come from the World of Light (i.e. lightworld) and all evil from the World of Darkness.[150] In relation to the body–mind dualism coined by Descartes, Mandaeans consider the body, and all material, worldly things, to have come from the dark, while the soul (sometimes referred to as the mind) is a product of the lightworld.

Mandaeans believe that there is a constant battle or conflict between the forces of good and evil. The forces of good are represented by Nhura (Light) and Maia Hayyi (Living Water) and those of evil are represented by Hshuka (darkness) and Maia Tahmi (dead or rancid water). The two waters are mixed in all things in order to achieve a balance. Mandaeans also believe in an afterlife or heaven called Alma d-Nhura (World of Light).[154]

In Mandaeism, the World of Light is ruled by a supreme God, known as Hayyi Rabbi ('The Great Life' or 'The Great Living God').[154] Other names used are Mare d'Rabuta ('Lord of Greatness'), Mana Rabba ('The Great Mind'), Melka d'Nhura ('King of Light') and Hayyi Qadmaiyi ('The First Life').[57][155] God is so great, vast, and incomprehensible that no words can fully depict how awesome God is. It is believed that an innumerable number of uthras (angels or guardians),[69]: 8  manifested from the light, surround and perform acts of worship to praise and honor God. They inhabit worlds separate from the lightworld and some are commonly referred to as emanations and are subservient beings to 'The First Life'; their names include Second, Third, and Fourth Life (i.e. Yōšamin, Abathur, and Ptahil).[156][69]: 8 

John the Baptist by Leonardo da Vinci

The Lord of Darkness (Krun) is the ruler of the World of Darkness formed from dark waters representing chaos.[156][57] A main defender of the darkworld is a giant monster, or dragon, with the name Ur, and an evil, female ruler also inhabits the darkworld, known as Ruha.[156] The Mandaeans believe these malevolent rulers created demonic offspring who consider themselves the owners of the seven visible planets and twelve zodiac constellations.[156]

According to Mandaean beliefs, the material world is a mixture of light and dark created by Ptahil, who fills the role of the demiurge, with help from dark powers, such as Ruha, the Seven, and the Twelve.[156] Adam's body (believed to be the first human created by God in Abrahamic tradition) was fashioned by these dark beings, however his soul (or mind) was a direct creation from the Light. Therefore, many Mandaeans believe the human soul is capable of salvation because it originates from the lightworld. The soul, sometimes referred to as the 'inner Adam' or Adam Kasia, is in dire need of being rescued from the dark, so it may ascend into the heavenly realm of the lightworld.[156] Baptisms are a central theme in Mandaeism, believed to be necessary for the redemption of the soul. Mandaeans do not perform a single baptism; rather, they view baptisms as a ritual act capable of bringing the soul closer to salvation.[27] Therefore, Mandaeans are baptized repeatedly during their lives.[157][1] John the Baptizer is a key figure for the Mandaeans; they consider him to have been a Nasoraean Mandaean.[57]: 3 [158][7] John is referred to as their greatest and final teacher.[69][57]

Scholarship

Brikha Nasoraia, a Mandaean priest and scholar, believes in a two-origin theory in which he considers the contemporary Mandaeans to have descended from both proto-Mandaeans originating in the Jordan valley of Palestine/Judea, as well as another group of Mandaeans (or Gnostics) indigenous to southern Mesopotamia.[64]: 55 

Scholars specializing in Mandaeism such as Kurt Rudolph, Mark Lidzbarski, Rudolf Macúch, Ethel S. Drower, Eric Segelberg, James F. McGrath, Charles G. Häberl, Jorunn J. Buckley, and Şinasi Gündüz argue for a Palestinian/Judean origin. The majority of these scholars believe that the Mandaeans likely have a historical connection with John the Baptizer's inner circle of disciples.[159][160][71]: xiv [56][33][69][161][162][163][164][165] Charles Häberl, who is also a linguist specializing in Mandaic, finds Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, Samaritan Aramaic, Hebrew, Greek and Latin influence on Mandaic and accepts Mandaeans having a "shared Palestinian history with Jews".[166][167] In addition, scholars such as Richard August Reitzenstein, Rudolf Bultmann, G. R. S. Mead, Andrew Phillip Smith, Samuel Zinner, Richard Thomas, J. C. Reeves, G. Quispel and K. Beyer also argue for a Judea/Palestine or Jordan Valley origin for the Mandaeans.[55]: 78 [168][169][170][171][172][60][173] Torgny Säve-Söderberg discovered considerable word-for-word reproductions of the Ginza Rabba, Qolasta and Book of John in the 3rd-4th century Coptic Manichaean Psalms of Thomas.[174]: 398  James McGrath and Richard Thomas believe there is a direct connection between Mandaeism and pre-exilic traditional Israelite religion.[175][171] Lady Ethel S. Drower "sees early Christianity as a Mandaean heresy"[176] and adds "heterodox Judaism in Galilee and Samaria appears to have taken shape in the form we now call gnostic, and it may well have existed some time before the Christian era."[71]: xv  Barbara Thiering questions the dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls and suggests that the Teacher of Righteousness (leader of the Essenes) was John the Baptizer.[177] Jorunn J. Buckley argues for Mandaeism's Israelite or Judean origins[28]: 97  and adds:

[T]he Mandaeans may well have become the inventors of - or at least contributors to the development of - Gnosticism ... and they produced the most voluminous Gnostic literature we know, in one language... influenc[ing] the development of Gnostic and other religious groups in late antiquity [e.g. Manichaeism, Valentianism].[28]: 109 

In an interview, Charles G. Häberl stated:

... quite a lot of Christians trace their own lineage to the Assyrians and Babylonians in that region and I think that sort of ideology has also become very popular among Mandaeans of a secular background as well; they like to see their own origins in these ancient civilizations and understandably so. That being said, most people pushing in the first part of the 20th Century the Babylonian or Mesopotamian origins of the Mandaeans were actually sectarian Christians who wanted to kind of push Mandaeans as far away from anything to say about John the Baptist and delegitimize their claims upon the shared history between Jews, Christians, Mandaeans and Muslims as well. They are trying to delegitimize that and alienate them by making them Mesopotamian pagans...As with so many things, there's a kind of political impetus there.[178]

Other names

Sabians

The Quran makes references to the Sabians, who are identified with the Mandaeans.[35]: 5 [36][33]: 5 [37] Sabians are counted among the Ahl al-Kitāb (People of the Book), and several hadith feature them. Seventh century Arab sources of early Quranic times make some references to Sabians. The word Sabian is derived from the Aramaic root related to baptism with the cognate in Neo-Mandaic being Ṣabi 'to baptize'.[34]: 1 [35]: 5 [37][36] In the Middle East, they are more commonly known as the Ṣābi'ūn, i.e. 'the Sabians‘, or colloquially as the Ṣubba.[34][43][169]: 69 [57][91][179][36][180]

Nasoraeans

The Haran Gawaita uses the name Nasoraeans for the Mandaeans arriving from Jerusalem meaning guardians or possessors of secret rites and knowledge.[42] Scholars such as Kurt Rudolph, Rudolf Macúch, Mark Lidzbarski, Ethel S. Drower, James F. McGrath and Frank Williams connect the Mandaeans with the Nasaraeans described by Epiphanius of Salamis, a group within the Essenes according to Joseph Lightfoot.[181][182][71]: xiv [56][171][163][164][183] Epiphanius says (29:6) that they existed before Jesus.[71]: xiv [184]

The Nasaraeans ‐ they were Jews by nationality ‐ originally from Gileaditis, Bashanitis and the Transjordan ... They acknowledged Moses and believed that he had received laws ‐ not this law, however, but some other. And so, they were Jews who kept all the Jewish observances, but they would not offer sacrifice or eat meat. They considered it unlawful to eat meat or make sacrifices with it. They claim that these Books [Torah] are fictions, and that none of these customs were instituted by the fathers. This was the difference between the Nasaraeans and the others.
— Epiphanius of Salamis' Panarion 1:18

Johannites

Mandaeans are also known as Johannites (Arabic: اليحياويون al-Yaḥyāwiyūn) since they are followers of John the Baptizer who is considered their greatest prophet.[39]

Language

Neo-Mandaic is the contemporary language spoken by some Mandaeans, while Classical Mandaic is the liturgical language of Mandaeism.[185] However, most Mandaeans currently do not speak conversational Neo-Mandaic in everyday life, but rather the languages of their host countries, such as Arabic, Farsi, or English.

See also

Related historical groups
Other topics

Notes

  1. including 450 in Iraqi Kurdistan
  2. The Mandaeans are recognized as Sabians (Sabeans) in the Iraqi constitution[82] and also recognized in Iran in the following fatwā numbered (S 322) in Persian and (Q 321) in the English translation:



    س 322. تعداد زیادی از مردم در خوزستان زندگی می کنند که خود را «صابئه» می نامند و ادعای پیروی از پیامبر خدا حضرت یحیی(ع) را دارند و می گویند کتاب او نزد ما موجود است. نزد علمای ادیان ثابت شده که آن ها همان صابئون هستند که در قرآن آمده است. لطفاً بیان فرمایید که این گروه از اهل کتاب هستند یا خیر؟
    ج. گروه مذکور در حکم اهل کتاب هستند.[83]

    Translation of the Persian original:
    S 322. There are a large number of people living in Khuzestan who call themselves Ṣābiʼah and who claim to follow God's holy Prophet Yahya (a.s.) and say that his book is available to us. According to religious scholars, it has been proven that they are the Sabeans mentioned in the Qur'an. Please state whether this group is from people of the book or not?
    J: The mentioned group are people of the book.

    Official English translation:
    Q 321: There live a large number of people in Khuzestan who call themselves Sabeans and claim that they are the followers of Prophet John [Yaḥyā] (a.s.) and that they possess his scripture. It has also been established for the religious scholars that they are the Sabeans mentioned in the Qur’an. Please explain whether they are among the People of the Book.

    A: The rule of the People of the Book is applicable to this group.[84]

    Fatwā S 316 (or Q 315 in English) also discusses the Sabeans of the Qur'an:

    س 316: مقصود از اهل کتاب چه کسانى است؟ معيارى که حدود معاشرت با آنها را مشخص کند چيست؟

    ج: مقصود از اهل کتاب هر کسى است که اعتقاد به يکى از اديان الهى داشته و خود را از پيروان پيامبرى از پيامبران الهى(على نبينا وآله وعليهم‌السلام) بداند و يکى از کتاب‏هاى الهى را که بر انبياء عليهم السلام نازل شده، داشته [83]باشند مانند يهود، نصارى، زرتشتى‏ها و همچنين صابئين که بر اساس تحقيقات ما از اهل کتاب هستند و حکم آنها را دارند. معاشرت با پيروان اين اديان با رعايت ضوابط و اخلاق اسلامى اشکال ندارد.

    Q 315: What are the religions whose followers are considered the People of the Book? What is the criterion for defining the limits of social relations with them?

    A: By the People of the Book is meant all those who profess a divine religion and consider themselves the followers of one of the prophets of Allah, the Glorious and the Exalted (may peace be upon our Prophet and his progeny and upon them) and who possess a heavenly scripture from those revealed to the Prophets (a.), such as the Jews, the Christians, the Zoroastrians and similarly the Sabeans who, on the basis of our research, are among the People of the Book. Therefore, the rule of the People of the Book applies to the followers of these religions, and there is no objection to associating with them socially, while observing Islamic laws and morals.[84]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Bell, Matthew (October 6, 2016). "These Iraqi immigrants revere John the Baptist, but they're not Christians". The World. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  2. Thaler, Kai (March 9, 2007). "Iraqi minority group needs U.S. attention". Yale Daily News. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "The Mandaeans - Who are the Mandaeans?". The Worlds of Mandaean Priests. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Larsson, Göran; Sorgenfrei, Simon; Stockman, Max (2017). "Religiösa minoriteter från Mellanöstern" (PDF). Myndigheten för stöd till trossamfund. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Hanish, Shak (2019). The Mandaeans In Iraq. In Rowe, Paul S. (2019). Routledge Handbook of Minorities in the Middle East. London and New York: Routledge. p. 160. ISBN 9781317233794.
  6. "The strength within: The role of refugee community organisations in settlement-Case study: Sabean Mandean Association". Refugee Council of Australia. January 26, 2019. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Hegarty, Siobhan (July 21, 2017). "Meet the Mandaeans: Australian followers of John the Baptist celebrate new year". ABC. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
  8. Hinchey, Rebecca. "Mandaens, a unique culture" (PDF). NSW Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  9. "Iran" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved June 17, 2023.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Office of International Religious Freedom (June 2, 2022). "2021 Report on International Religious Freedom: Iran". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved June 17, 2023.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Contrera, Russell. "Saving the people, killing the faith – Holland, MI". The Holland Sentinel. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 Farhan, Salam; al Roomi, Layla; Nashi, Suhaib (October 2015). "Submission on behalf of the Mandaean Human Rights Group to the Human Rights Committee's Periodic Review of Iraq in October 2015" (PDF). OHCHR. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  13. 13.0 13.1 MacQuarrie, Brian (August 13, 2016). "Embraced by Worcester, Iraq's persecuted Mandaean refugees now seek 'anchor'—their own temple". The Boston Globe. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Moulton, Cyrus. "Mandaean community opens office in Worcester". telegram.com. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Sly, Liz (November 16, 2008). "'This is one of the world's oldest religions, and it is going to die.'". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Busch, Matthew; Ross, Robyn (February 18, 2020). "Against The Current". Texas Observer. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Salloum, Saad (August 29, 2019). "Iraqi Mandaeans fear extinction". Al-Monitor. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
  18. Verschiedene Gemeinschaften / neuere religiöse Bewegungen, in: Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst|Religionswissenschaftliche Medien- und Informationsdienst e. V. (Abbreviation: REMID), Retrieved 9 October 2016
  19. Castelier, Sebastian; Dzuilka, Margaux (June 9, 2018). "Jordan's Mandaean minority fear returning to post-ISIS Iraq". The National. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Ersan, Mohammad (February 2, 2018). "Are Iraqi Mandaeans better off in Jordan?". Al-Monitor. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  21. Sido, Kamal (October 7, 2010). "Leader of the world's Mandaeans asks for help". Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker. Archived from the original on February 11, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  22. Fraser, Tim (July 31, 2015). "Canadians working to rescue Mandaean people on brink of extinction in Iraq". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Schou, Kim; Højland, Marie-Louise (May 6, 2013). "Hvem er mandæerne?". Religion.dk(Danish). Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  24. Koskinen, Paula (July 14, 2014). "Mandealaiset saivat joukkokasteen Pyhäjärvessä". Yle. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  25. 25.0 25.1 "Religion : la Touraine, refuge des Sabéens-Mandéens". la Nouvelle Republique. April 23, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2021.
  26. 26.0 26.1 "About 70% Sabean-Mandaeans have left Iraq, says official". Rudaw. August 28, 2022. Retrieved October 2, 2022.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 McGrath, James (January 23, 2015), "The First Baptists, The Last Gnostics: The Mandaeans", YouTube-A lunchtime talk about the Mandaeans by Dr. James F. McGrath at Butler University, retrieved November 3, 2021
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (2010). Turning the Tables on Jesus: The Mandaean View. In Horsley, Richard (March 2010). Christian Origins. ISBN 9781451416640.(pp94-11). Minneapolis: Fortress Press
  29. Iraqi minority group needs U.S. attention Archived 2007-10-25 at the Wayback Machine, Kai Thaler, Yale Daily News, 9 March 2007.
  30. al Sheati, Ahmed (December 6, 2011). "Iran Mandaeans in exile following persecution". Al Arabiya. Retrieved November 11, 2021.
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 Deutsch, Nathaniel (October 6, 2007). "Save the Gnostics". The New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Rudolph 1977, p. 15.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 Gündüz, Şinasi (1994). The Knowledge of Life: The Origins and Early History of the Mandaeans and Their Relation to the Sabians of the Qur'ān and to the Harranians. ISBN 978-0-19-922193-6.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 *Häberl, Charles G. (2009), The neo-Mandaic dialect of Khorramshahr, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-05874-2
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 Häberl, Charles G. (2022). The Book of Kings and the Explanations of This World: A Universal History from the Late Sasanian Empire. Translated Texts for Historians. Vol. 80. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. ISBN 978-1-800-85627-1.
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 Chwolsohn, Daniil Avraamovich (1856). Die Ssabier und der Ssabismus. pp. I, 112, II, 543.
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Asad, Muhammad (1984). The Message of the Qur'an (PDF). Gibraltar: Dār al-Andalus. p. 40.
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 Nasoraia, Brikha S. (2012). "Sacred Text and Esoteric Praxis in Sabian Mandaean Religion". In Çetinkaya, Bayram (ed.). Religious and Philosophical Texts: Rereading, Understanding and Comprehending Them in the 21st Century (PDF). Istanbul: Sultanbeyli Belediyesi. pp. vol. I, pp. 27–53.
  39. 39.0 39.1 حسيب شحادة (December 3, 2021). "إطلالة على المِنْدائيّين". ahewar.org. Retrieved May 11, 2023.
  40. Rudolph 1977, p. 5.
  41. 41.0 41.1 Rudolph, Kurt (April 1964). "War Der Verfasser Der Oden Salomos Ein "Qumran-Christ"? Ein Beitrag zur Diskussion um die Anfänge der Gnosis". Revue de Qumrân. Peeters. 4 (4 (16)): 523–555.
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 Rudolph, Kurt (April 7, 2008). "MANDAEANS ii. THE MANDAEAN RELIGION". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved January 3, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 Drower, Ethel Stefana (1953). The Haran Gawaita and the Baptism of Hibil-Ziwa. Biblioteca Apostolica Vatican.
  44. 44.0 44.1 Aldihisi, Sabah (2008). The story of creation in the Mandaean holy book in the Ginza Rba (PhD). University College London.
  45. Coughenour, Robert A. "The Wisdom Stance of Enoch's Redactor". Brill: 52. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic, and Roman Period Vol. 13, No. 1/2 (DECEMBER 1982), pp. 47-55
  46. "The War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness". Britannica. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  47. Hamidović, David (2010). "About the Links between the Dead Sea Scrolls and Mandaean Liturgy". ARAM Periodical. 22: 441-451. doi:10.2143/ARAM.22.0.2131048.
  48. Häberl, Charles (March 3, 2021), "Hebraisms in Mandaic", YouTube, retrieved November 3, 2021
  49. Häberl, Charles (2021). "Mandaic and the Palestinian Question". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 141 (1): 171–184. doi:10.7817/jameroriesoci.141.1.0171. ISSN 0003-0279. S2CID 234204741.
  50. Stephen A. Kaufman, The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic (Assyriological Studies 19; Chicago: The University of Chicago: 1974).
  51. Häberl, Charles G. (February 2006). "Iranian Scripts for Aramaic Languages: The Origin of the Mandaic Script". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (341): 53–62. doi:10.7282/T37D2SGZ.
  52. Franz Rosenthal, Das Mandäische, in Die aramaistische Forschung seit Th. Nöldeke’s Veröffentlichungen (Leiden: Brill 1939), pp. 228–229.
  53. McGrath, James F.,"Reading the Story of Miriai on Two Levels: Evidence from Mandaean Anti-Jewish Polemic about the Origins and Setting of Early Mandaeism". ARAM Periodical / (2010): 583–592.
  54. Secunda, Shai, and Steven Fine. Secunda, Shai; Fine, Steven (September 3, 2012). Shoshannat Yaakov. ISBN 978-9004235441. Brill, 2012. p. 345
  55. 55.0 55.1 Deutsch, Nathaniel (1999). Guardians of the Gate: Angelic Vice-regency in the Late Antiquity. Brill. ISBN 9004109099.
  56. 56.0 56.1 56.2 56.3 Rudolph 1977, p. 4.
  57. 57.0 57.1 57.2 57.3 57.4 57.5 57.6 Drower, Ethel Stefana. The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran. Oxford At The Clarendon Press, 1937.
  58. Gelbert, Carlos (2005). The Mandaeans and the Jews: 2000 years of estrangement or what made the Jews hated by the Mandaeans. Edensor Park, N.S.W: Living Water Books. ISBN 0-9580346-2-1. OCLC 68208613.
  59. "The People of the Book and the Hierarchy of Discrimination". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
  60. 60.0 60.1 Quispel, G., Gnosticism and the New Testament, Vigiliae Christianae, vol. 19, No 2. (Jan., 1965), pp. 65-85.
  61. The Apostolic Johannite Church (October 17, 2022). "John the Baptist and the Mandaeans with Dr. James McGrath". YouTube-Dr. McGrath takes us through an examination of John the Baptist, the Mandaeans, and their Gnostic legacy. Retrieved December 28, 2022.
  62. Mandaean Society in America (March 27, 2013). "The Mandaeans: Their History, Religion and Mythology". Mandaean Associations Union. Retrieved November 22, 2021.
  63. Porter, Tom (December 22, 2021). "Religion Scholar Jorunn Buckley Honored by Library of Congress". Bowdoin. Retrieved January 10, 2022.
  64. 64.0 64.1 64.2 64.3 64.4 Nasoraia, Brikha H.S. (2021). The Mandaean gnostic religion: worship practice and deep thought. New Delhi: Sterling. ISBN 978-81-950824-1-4. OCLC 1272858968.
  65. Gelbert, Carlos (2013). The Mandaeans and the Christians in the time of Jesus Christ: enemies from the first days of the church. Fairfield, N.S.W: Carlos Gelbert. ISBN 978-0-9580346-4-7. OCLC 853508149.
  66. Tarmida Sahi (November 29, 2019). "هل المندايين هاجرو قبل الفين عام من فلسطين". YouTube. Retrieved July 28, 2023.
  67. Russell, Gerard (2015). Heirs to Forgotten Kingdoms. Basic Books.
  68. "Welcome to the Mandaean Synod of Australia". Mandaean Synod of Australia. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  69. 69.00 69.01 69.02 69.03 69.04 69.05 69.06 69.07 69.08 69.09 69.10 69.11 69.12 69.13 69.14 69.15 69.16 69.17 69.18 Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (2002), The Mandaeans: ancient texts and modern people (PDF), Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195153859
  70. Deutsch, Nathaniel. (2003) Mandaean Literature. In The Gnostic Bible (p 531). New Seeds Books
  71. 71.0 71.1 71.2 71.3 71.4 71.5 71.6 Drower, Ethel Stephana (1960). The secret Adam, a study of Nasoraean gnosis (PDF). London UK: Clarendon Press.
  72. 72.0 72.1 Abdullah, Thabit A. J. (2018). "The Mandaean Community and Ottoman-British Rivalry in Late 19th-Century Iraq: The Curious Case of Shaykh Ṣaḥan". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 61: 396-425.
  73. Essa, Ahmed; Ali, Othman (2010). Studies in Islamic Civilization: The Muslim Contribution to the Renaissance. Cromwell Press Group, UK.
  74. Glassé, Cyril (2002). "Jabir ibn Hayyan". The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Altamira Press.
  75. Holmyard, E. J. "Jabir ibn Hayyan". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine.Volume 16 (Sect_Hist_Med): 12 – May 1, 1923
  76. Khallikān (ibn), Aḥmad i. M (1868). Mac Guckin de Slane, William (ed.). Wafayāt al-A'yān wa Anbā' (Ibn Khallian's Biographical Dictionary). Vol. III. Paris & London: W.H. Allen. p. 317.
  77. "Al–Battani". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved June 7, 2022.
  78. Mandaean Human Rights Group 2008, p. 5
  79. 79.0 79.1 Zurutuza, Karlos (29 January 2012). "The Ancient Wither in New Iraq". IPS. Archived from the original on 31 January 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
  80. Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen. "Mandaean Community in Iran". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved June 5, 2012.
  81. Arabestani, Mehrdad (December 19, 2016). "The Mandaeans' Religious System: From Mythos to Logos". Iran and the Caucasus. Brill. 20 (3–4): 261–276. doi:10.1163/1573384x-20160302. ISSN 1609-8498.
  82. 82.0 82.1 "Iraq's Constitution of 2005" (PDF). Constitute. Retrieved January 23, 2023.
  83. 83.0 83.1 "ṭahārat - aḥkām-e kāfer" طهارت - احکام کافر [purity - rulings of the infidel]. khamenei.irlanguage=fa. Archived from the original on May 21, 2013.
  84. 84.0 84.1 "Practical Laws of Islam". www.leader.ir. Retrieved January 20, 2023.
  85. 85.0 85.1 Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (2010). The great stem of souls: reconstructing Mandaean history. Piscataway, N.J: Gorgias Press. ISBN 978-1-59333-621-9.
  86. Rudolph, Kurt (1975). "Quellenprobleme zur Ursprung und Alter der Mandäer." In Christianity, Judaism and Other Greco-Roman Cults, edited by Jacob Neusner, vol. 4: Studies for Morton Smith at Sixty, 112–42. Leiden: Brill. Reprinted in Gnosis und Spätantike Religionsgeschichte, 402–32.
  87. Petermann, Heinrich. Reisen in Orient. Vols. 1–2. Leipzig: Von Veit and Co., 1865.
  88. Buckley, Jorunn Jacobsen (July 20, 2005). "Mandaens iv. Community in Iran". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  89. 89.0 89.1 89.2 89.3 89.4 89.5 Ekman, Ivar (April 9, 2007). "An exodus to Sweden from Iraq for ethnic Mandaeans". The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  90. 90.0 90.1 Newmarker, Chris (February 10, 2007). "Survival of Ancient Faith Threatened by Fighting in Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  91. 91.0 91.1 Lupieri, Edmundo (2001). The Mandaeans: The Last Gnostics. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780802833501.
  92. 92.0 92.1 Crawford, Angus (March 4, 2007). "Iraq's Mandaeans 'face extinction'". BBC News. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  93. Genocide Watch: Mandaeans of Iraq Archived May 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  94. National Center for Atmospheric Research. "Repository" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 11, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
  95. خالد ميران دفتر. شخصيات صابئية مندائية في التاريخ المعاصر. p. 38.
  96. Al-Jader, Azhar N (January 9, 2022). "Mr Naman Abdul Jader a Shining Star in Mandaean History". Mandaean Associations Union. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  97. خالد ميران دفتر. شخصيات صابئية مندائية في التاريخ المعاصر. pp. 37–38.
  98. "Dr A W Alsabti". Retrieved December 9, 2021.
  99. "Dr. Abdul Athem Alsabti". Retrieved December 9, 2021.
  100. Boutwell, Jeffrey (June 2005). "Pugwash Newsletter" (PDF). Pugwash Conferences. Retrieved December 9, 2021. vol:42, num:1
  101. "(10478) Alsabti". IAU Minor Planet Center. Retrieved December 10, 2021.
  102. Morgan, Major H. Sandford (October 17, 1931). "Secrets in Silver - An Ancient Handicraft". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved December 9, 2021.
  103. "Portrait of the Amara Silversmith's leader, Zahrun". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved December 9, 2021.
  104. "Advance of the Crusaders into Mesopotamia | Note: name misspelled as 'Zahroam of Amara'". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved December 9, 2021.
  105. هيام الخياط (January 19, 2016). "زهرون عمارة صائغ الملوك السلاطين". Mandaean Associations Union. Retrieved January 27, 2022.
  106. "زهرون عمارة .. عمل "ارگيلة " من الفضة للسلطان عبدالحميد". algardenia.com. February 20, 2018. Retrieved January 27, 2022.
  107. "قصة أَسر الشيخ صَحَنْ وقَتل الشيخ عيدانْ". البُحوث المَندائية التأريخيّة. Retrieved June 26, 2022.
  108. حميد الشيخ دخيل (April 5, 2013). "صور مضيئة من حياة الشيخ داموك وحفيده الشيخ دخيل". Mandaean Associations Union. Retrieved June 26, 2022.
  109. "الشيخ دخيل الشيخ عيدان". mandaeans.org. October 7, 2008. Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2021.
  110. "His Holiness Sattar Jabbar Hilo – Global Imams Council". Global Imams Council. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
  111. "Rishamma Sattar Jabar Hilow: July 2016, Chapter 1". The Worlds of Mandaean Priests. July 1, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  112. Murrani, Sally (August 31, 2011). "Najiya Murrani obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved December 9, 2021.
  113. Kazal, Arkan (2019). "Shock and Awe: The U.S.Led Invasion and the Struggle of Iraq's Non-Muslim Minorities" (PDF). Retrieved December 9, 2021.
  114. "Yahya Al-Sheikh". Yahya Al-Sheikh. Retrieved June 24, 2022.
  115. 115.0 115.1 115.2 Saleh, Raad Jabbar (2013). Sabian Mandaeans: A Millennial Culture at Stake. In Salloum, Sa'ad (2013). Minorities in Iraq Memory, Identity and Challenges. Masarat for Cultural and Media development.
  116. "Tahseen I. Al-Saleem, MD". Fox Chase Cancer Center. Retrieved June 24, 2022.
  117. "Professor Tahseen I Al-Saleem". MedCrave. Retrieved June 24, 2022.
  118. "Editorial board". MedCrave. Retrieved June 24, 2022.
  119. 119.0 119.1 "Iran Mandaeans in exile following persecution". Alarabiya.net. December 6, 2011. Archived from the original on July 31, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  120. "Ideological Screening (ROOZ :: English)".
  121. Annual Report for Iran Archived 2011-02-18 at the Wayback Machine, 2005, Amnesty International.
  122. Ross, Robyn; Busch, Matthew (February 18, 2020). "San Antonio Embraces Mandaean Refugees". The Texas Observer. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  123. The Associated Press (July 1, 2009). "Ancient sect fights to keep culture alive in U.S." NBC News. Retrieved November 11, 2021.
  124. Wirya, Khogir; van Zoonen, Dave (July 2017), The Sabean-Mandaeans Perceptions of Reconciliation and Conflict (PDF), Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Middle East Research Institute
  125. آمریکا, صدای (December 29, 2014). "رهبر منداییان جهان در ایران درگذشت". صدای آمریکا (in Persian). Retrieved October 17, 2021.
  126. "Rishamma Salah Choheili: July 2016, Chapter 1". The Worlds of Mandaean Priests. July 1, 2016. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  127. Dehkordi, Maryam (November 24, 2020). "A Mandaean Priest's Dashed Hopes for Change in Iran". Iran Wire. Retrieved November 5, 2022.
  128. Dehkordi, Maryam (January 26, 2020). "A Mandaean Martial Arts Master's Story of Discrimination". Iran Wire. Retrieved November 5, 2022.
  129. "Precarious existence of Iraqi Mandaean community". The New Humanitarian. September 15, 2010. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  130. 130.0 130.1 Who Cares for the MANDAEANS?, Australian Islamist Monitor.
  131. Source: ABS (2017), Census of Population and Housing, Reflecting Australia - Stories from the Census, 2016 - Religion, Table 1, ABS Catalogue Number 2071.0.
  132. "Iraqi Kiwis pray war is averted". NZ Herald. September 9, 2002. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  133. 133.0 133.1 "Morgondopp som ger gruppen nytt hopp" (in Swedish).
  134. Newmarker, Chris (February 10, 2007). "Survival of Ancient Faith Threatened by Fighting in Iraq". The Washington Post and Times-Herald. Associated Press. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  135. Mandaeans persecuted in Iraq. ABC Radio National (Australia), June 7, 2006.
  136. Pyhäranta, Tuija (January 9, 2015). "Rekisteröityjen uskonnollisten yhdyskuntien määrä ylitti sadan – uutena uskontona mandealaisuus". Kotimaa. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  137. Al-Saadi, Qais Mughashghash; Al-Saadi, Hamed Mughashghash (2012). Ginza Rabba: The Great Treasure. An equivalent translation of the Mandaean Holy Book. Drabsha.
  138. Smith, David Maurice (July 30, 2015). "An Ancient Baptism in Sydney". Roads & Kingdoms. Retrieved October 30, 2021.
  139. Sabian Mandaean Association in Australia.
  140. Robins, Ian (July 2016). "Album: The Ganzibra Dakhil Mandi, Liverpool, Sydney". The Worlds of Mandaean Priests. Retrieved November 6, 2021.
  141. "Mandaean Synod of Australia". Welcome to the Mandaean Synod of Australia. July 5, 2005. Retrieved October 30, 2021.
  142. Nyheter, SVT (September 15, 2018). "Nu står mandéernas kyrka i Dalby färdig". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved December 1, 2018.
  143. "Lokaltidningen".
  144. Mandaean Association of Texas in Pflugerville, Texas.
  145. Mandaean Association of Michigan.
  146. Mandaean in Chicago.
  147. The Associated Press (July 1, 2009). "Ancient Iraqi Mandaean sect struggles to keep culture in Michigan". mLive. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  148. Petrishen, Brad. "Worcester branch of Mandaean faith works to plant roots". telegram.com. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
  149. Ginza Rabba. Translated by Al-Saadi, Qais; Al-Saadi, Hamed (2nd ed.). Germany: Drabsha. 2019. p. 1.
  150. 150.0 150.1 150.2 150.3 150.4 Cross, F. L.; Livingstone, E. A., eds. (2005). "Mandeans (Nasoreans)". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3rd, Revised ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1032–1033. ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3.
  151. Fontaine, Petrus Franciscus Maria (January 1990). "Dualism in ancient Iran, India and China". The Light and the Dark. 5. Brill. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  152. Al-Saadi, Qais; Al-Saadi, Hamed (2019). Ginza Rabba (2nd ed.). Germany: Drabsha.
  153. Holy Spirit University of Kaslik - USEK (November 27, 2017), "Open discussion with the Sabaeans Mandaeans", YouTube, retrieved December 10, 2021
  154. 154.0 154.1 Nashmi, Yuhana (April 24, 2013), "Contemporary Issues for the Mandaean Faith", Mandaean Associations Union, retrieved October 3, 2021
  155. Rudolf, K. (1978). Mandaeism. Leiden: Brill.
  156. 156.0 156.1 156.2 156.3 156.4 156.5 Rudolph 2001.
  157. "Sabian Mandaeans". Minority Rights Group International. November 2017. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  158. "Mandaeanism | religion". Britannica. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  159. Greenfield, Jonas C. "Reviewed Works: The Secret Adam. A Study of Nasoraean Gnosis by E. S. Drower; The Canonical Prayerbook of the Mandaeans by E. S. Drower; The Coronation of the Great Šišlam by E. S. Drower". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)Journal of the American Oriental Society Vol. 83, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 1963), pp. 246-249 (4 pages)
  160. Cohn-Sherbok, Dan. "The Mandaeans and Heterodox Judaism". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)Hebrew Union College Annual Vol. 54 (1983), p 147
  161. McGrath, James F.,"Reading the Story of Miriai on Two Levels: Evidence from Mandaean Anti-Jewish Polemic about the Origins and Setting of Early Mandaeism".ARAM Periodical / (2010): 583–592.
  162. Lidzbarski, Mark 1915 Das Johannesbuch der Mandäer. Giessen: Alfred Töpelmann.
  163. 163.0 163.1 Macuch, Rudolf A Mandaic Dictionary (with E. S. Drower). Oxford: Clarendon Press 1963.
  164. 164.0 164.1 R. Macuch, “Anfänge der Mandäer. Versuch eines geschichtliches Bildes bis zur früh-islamischen Zeit,” chap. 6 of F. Altheim and R. Stiehl, Die Araber in der alten Welt II: Bis zur Reichstrennung, Berlin, 1965.
  165. Segelberg, Eric (1969). "Old and New Testament figures in Mandaean version". Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis. 3: 228-239. doi:10.30674/scripta.67040.
  166. Häberl, Charles (March 3, 2021), "Hebraisms in Mandaic", YouTube, archived from the original on November 10, 2021, retrieved November 3, 2021
  167. Häberl, Charles (2021). "Mandaic and the Palestinian Question". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 141 (1): 171–184. doi:10.7817/jameroriesoci.141.1.0171. ISSN 0003-0279. S2CID 234204741.
  168. Mead, G. R. S., Gnostic John the Baptizer: Selections from the Mandaean John-Book, Dumfries & Galloway UK, Anodos Books (2020)
  169. 169.0 169.1 Smith, Andrew Phillip. John the Baptist and the Last Gnostics: the Secret History of the Mandaeans. Watkins, 2016.
  170. Zinner, Samuel (2019). "The Vines Of Joy: Comparative Studies in Mandaean History and Theology". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  171. 171.0 171.1 171.2 Thomas, Richard (January 29, 2016). "The Israelite Origins of the Mandaean People". Studia Antiqua. 5 (2).
  172. Reeves, J. C., Heralds of that Good Realm: Syro-Mesopotamian Gnostic and Jewish Traditions, Leiden, New York, Koln (1996).
  173. Beyer, K., The Aramaic Language; Its Distribution and Subdivisions, translated from the German by John F. Healey, Gottingen (1986)
  174. Häberl, Charles G. (2015). Tense, Aspect, and Mood in the Doctrine of John. In Napiorkowska, Lidia (2015). Neo-Aramaic and its Linguistic Context. Gorgias Press. p. 397-406.
  175. McGrath, James (June 19, 2020). "The Shared Origins of Monotheism, Evil, and Gnosticism". YouTube. Archived from the original on November 17, 2021. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  176. Buckley, Jorunn (2012). Lady E. S. Drower's Scholarly Correspondence. Brill. p. 210.
  177. "The Riddle of the Dead Sea Scrolls". YouTube - Discovery Channel documentary. 1990. Retrieved March 10, 2022.
  178. Zinner, Samuel (December 21, 2022), "Just Nowhere Episode 3 Who Are the Mandaeans with Charles Häberl", YouTube-A wide-ranging discussion on the Mandaeans with Charles Häberl at the Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies., retrieved December 28, 2022
  179. Guest, John S. (2010). Survival Among the Kurds - A History of the Yezidis. Routledge. p. 126. ISBN 9781136157295.
  180. "Extracts from E. S. Drower, 'Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran'". Farvardyn.com. Archived from the original on December 4, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
  181. McGrath, James F. (2019). "James F. McGrath Reviews From Sasanian Mandaeans to Sabians (van Bladel)". Enoch Seminar Online.
  182. Lidzbarski, Mark. Ginza: der Schatz, oder das Grosse Buch der Mandäer. Leipzig, 1925.
  183. Lightfoot, Joseph Barber (1875). "On Some Points Connected with the Essenes". St. Paul's epistles to the Colossians and to Philemon: a revised text with introductions, notes, and dissertations. London: Macmillan Publishers. OCLC 6150927.
  184. The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis, Book I (Sects 1–46) Frank Williams, translator, 1987 (E.J. Brill, Leiden) ISBN 90-04-07926-2
  185. "Mandaic". Ethnologue. Retrieved May 25, 2019.

Bibliography

Primary sources

  • Buckley, Jorunn J. (1993). The Scroll of Exalted Kingship: Diwan Malkuta 'Laita (Mandean Manuscript No. 34 in the Drower Collection, Bodleian Library, Oxford). New Haven: American Oriental Society.
  • Drower, E.S. (1950a). Diwan Abatur, or Progress Through the Purgatories: Text with Translation Notes and Appendices. Città del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.
  • Drower, E.S. (1950b). Šarḥ ḏ Qabin ḏ šišlam Rba (D. C. 38). Explanatory Commentary on the Marriage-Ceremony of the great Šišlam. Roma: Pontificio Istituto Biblico.
  • Drower, E.S. (1960a). The Thousand and Twelve Questions (Alf trisar šuialia). Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
  • Drower, E.S. (1962). The Coronation of the Great Šišlam, Being a Description of the Rite of the Coronation of a Mandaean Priest according to the Ancient Canon. Leiden: Brill.
  • Drower, E.S. (1963). A Pair of Naṣoraean Commentaries (Two Priestly Documents): The Great First World and The Lesser First World. Leiden: Brill.
  • Häberl, Charles G.; McGrath, James F. (2019). Häberl, Charles G; McGrath, James F (eds.). The Mandaean Book of John. Critical Edition, Translation, and Commentary. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter. doi:10.1515/9783110487862. ISBN 9783110487862. S2CID 226656912.
  • Häberl, Charles G.; McGrath, James F. (2020). The Mandaean Book of John: Text and Translation. Berlin: De Gruyter. (open access version of text and translation, taken from Häberl & McGrath 2019)

Secondary sources

External links

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Mandaeans, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors). Wikipedia logo